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scholarly articles on beauty standards

Also telling people to “be as beautiful as you can be.” I have finally come to terms with my special beauty and people can see it as I exude confidence. Put simply, the beauty ideal in American culture is: thin. standards and those of the dominant culture of their schools. At the same time, a beloved face that is less than perfect is often found beautiful regardless of any cultural or historical standard. There are multiple examples walking around today. In addition, scientific attempts to define ideal proportions suggest a preference for the “average.”2,3 Cross-cultural studies have tried to identify commonly preferred facial characteristics. Although some “beautiful faces,” like clothing and body conformations, go in and out of fashion, certain faces in every era are considered truly beautiful. Told me, ‘If the boy wants to look like Elvis, let him look like Elvis!‘'. 1 Modern studies of perceived attractiveness have supported the idea that facial symmetry is, indeed, a … The ancient Greeks believed that a beautiful face was defined in terms of a harmonious proportion of facial features. The article is called Pretty Hurts: The Impact of Beauty Standards and is located at https://thebodyisnotanapology.com/magazine/pretty-hurts-the-impact-of-beauty-standards/. These Often such requests are a response to the constant barrage of media images to which all of us, willingly or not, are subjected on a daily basis. Aconcept of beauty is built into all of us and involves a balance between objective criteria and subjective impressions and a capacity to perceive order, symmetry, and harmony. 36491 Google Imaes "Just because you don't fit society's standards of beauty doesn't mean you aren't beautiful." However, there are some gaps in this field of research. In fact, we could say that each person has his or her own concept of beauty, established by both culture and tradition and by individual temperament and sensibility. Since media has a large part in spreading society's ideals it is no surprise that researchers have found that increased media consumption leads to increased internalization of the thin-ideal (e.g., Miller & Halberstadt, 2005; Tiggemann, 2003). In 2014, beauty was the fourth-leading industry with the largest reach of influencers in the United States (Statista, n.d.). These days, … Mazur argues that trends have often Racialized beauty standards combined with the color complex make hair texture and length an essential part of Black female identity (Randle 2015). 1. Since the advent of motion pictures, the faces and bodies of Hollywood stars have often defined the parameters of our concept of beauty, whereas a few have been able to parlay their own “quirky” look in counterpoint to the prevailing standard. No, I don’t know what it’s like to be considered pretty and not given validity outside of my body or looks. For example, as Asian women express a desire for larger-appearing eyes with a visible upper lid, some Westerners are embracing the look of a more “exotic” eye, with a somewhat “hooded” eyelid. Beyonce’s song Pretty Hurts made my internal struggles come to life before my eyes. Dove is leaving it up to the audience to determine what is beautiful. How many times has a patient asking for facial aesthetic surgery brought with him or her the picture of some actor or actress from a magazine as a model? The uniqueness of every patient—their facial proportions and body habitus, psychological needs and motivations, self-image and personal concepts of attractiveness—takes precedence over any “standard” or “universal” construct of beauty. Submit. In a visually dynamic attempt to recreate this evolution, BuzzFeed Video showcased a diverse cast of models to depict more than 3,000 years of women’s ideal body types by each society’s standard of beauty. So, then, given all this, who sets the standards for facial beauty? The quest to define standards of beauty is not new. It's fine for women to do everything men do -- as long as they stay skinny, sexy, young, and soignée at the same time. For example, take Aerie, the subset of American Eagle specializing in intimates and sleepwear. This study investigated the underlying reasons women desire to be beautiful in South Korean, Chinese, and Japanese cultures by proposing a new concept called human beauty value (HBV). Men and women used it at the peril of lost teeth and inflamed gums. If you’re wondering why, just look around you! Arielle Cutler ’11, through a Levitt grant, spent the summer evaluating the efficacy of media literacy programs as a remedy to this vicious cycle. On questioning the young man further, the surgeon learned that the kid's father was in the waiting room. Homogenized beauty ideals, specifically the hegemony of Western beauty standards in non-Western countries (Brewis, Wutich, Falletta-Cowden, & Rodriguez-Soto, 2011; Yan & Bissell, 2014), has been attributed to be the reason behind the increase of bodily dissatisfaction and increase in global prevalence rate of eating disorders (Gordon, 2001). By finding the right balance between perceived attractiveness and individualized beauty, as well as recognizing that perceptions of beauty are constantly changing, we stand the best chance of giving our patients an outcome with which they can be happy for a lifetime. Beauty has traditionally been counted among the ultimate values, with goodness, truth, and justice. “The Art of Beauty” is a multimedia presentation examining cultural ideals of beauty as depicted in works of art throughout history. Through their films, TV, magazines, and other mass media, the developed countries have spread their prototypes of beauty globally, influencing the original concepts held by other cultures and ethnic groups. The quest to define standards of beauty is not new. The search for beauty could be deadly. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. In the U.S., “women are spending more [on beauty products], 13% more on foundation, 18% more on concealer, 35% of women use more than five makeup products every … Undeniably, however, there are trends in what is considered attractive. Which are the right components? fashion standards and long-standing standards related to ideal physical beauty (Brand, 2000). In his book, Beauty: An Analysis and Classification, Alexander Walker accepted standards of beauty that were congruent with those of classical antiquity, but he also identified the need for a degree of asymmetry. Black is not beautiful: Persistent messages and the globalization of “white” beauty in African women’s magazines. For example, in 2009, the magazine Vanity Fair reported a survey that showed that actress Angelina Jolie was considered the world's “most beautiful woman” by a whopping 58% of survey respondents, with the closest competitor receiving only 9% of the vote.9, We've all seen the idealization of Hollywood actors and actresses played out right in our own offices. . One of the earliest to seek insight into the elusive qualities of beauty was the Greek philosopher Pythagoras (c. 570–495 bc). Society's Beauty Standards The definition of beauty has been shaped by society's standards instead of what people actually look like. This piece originally appeared on Femsplain.com. Much has been made over the years about how mainstream media presents unrealistic beauty standards in the form of photoshopped celebrities or stick-thin … Hannah Hawkins. After the obligatory small talk, the surgeon told the father of his son's request and gently suggested that perhaps the young man would benefit from some psychiatric counseling. Vermilion rouge used in the 18th century was made of a sulfur and mercury compound. Researchers investigating these theories have often found cross-cultural similarities in facial preferences.6 I use the term evolutionary beauty to describe how certain perceived aspects of “beauty” have varied considerably across time and cultures, and they continue to do so today. These beauty standards, largely proliferated through the media, have drastic impacts on young women and their body images. Just as advertising previously shifted with social movements, the #MeToo and The nature of beauty is one of the most enduring and controversial themes in Western philosophy, and is—with the nature of art—one of the two fundamental issues in philosophical aesthetics. cross-cultural variations in beauty standards a theme which will be reviewed in the. It was clear that this kid bore no resemblance whatsoever to Elvis, and his request would be impossible to fulfill—even if the surgeon were so inclined, which he was not. Foad Nahai, MD, FACS, Evolutionary Beauty, Aesthetic Surgery Journal, Volume 34, Issue 3, March 2014, Pages 469–471, https://doi.org/10.1177/1090820X14525764. following pages. An aesthetic surgeon has a responsibility to probe deeply, to seek to understand motivation, to explain risks and consequences, and to advise young patients (and their parents) if there is any doubt as to their physical and emotional suitability for a particular operation. Presentations at our international congresses demonstrate the interest of patients in changing their original look, not only to become beautiful by the traditional standards of their own cultures, but often to look as similar as possible to the Hollywood star prototype. In the United States, the effects of European standards of beauty are most evident in the Black community and have their greatest influence on the outcomes of … As in the case of rhinoplasty, surgery that profoundly alters the appearance should never be undertaken lightly in young people. Mar 07, 2017. These influencers, dubbed online as “Beauty Gurus” online, use their skills in makeup to partner with cosmetic brands, earning big bucks … INDEX WORDS: Beauty perceptions, Beauty standards, Body image, Skin color, Hair Because of their visibility, royalty once served as prevailing models of beauty. In this regard, there is growing recognition and acceptance of what I would call, for lack of a better term, “evolutionary” beauty. The absence of this balance translates into the “unaesthetic.”. In 2009, Essence magazine’s Smart Beauty panel explored African American women’s shopping experiences within the prestige beauty market (Smith, 2009). Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. What about the concepts of beauty among Asians, Indians, Laplanders, Mongols, or Mayas? One cosmetic surgeon in Shanghai put it this way: “Young women are beginning to strive for a modified, yet traditionally Chinese look.” Bigger eyes, pointed out a well-known Chinese makeup artist, make the face look smaller, a traditionally valued trait among Chinese women. Nothing escapes the influence of media and communications. It seems like not so long ago that there was extensive and often heated debate over the implications of altering a patient's racial or ethnic characteristics through plastic surgery.7 It was assumed by many that patients seeking such alterations must be motivated by a misplaced desire to emulate Western/white standards of beauty, achieve higher social status, or deny their own ethnic or racial heritage. Perceptions surrounding beauty and body types not only vary by culture, but have evolved significantly throughout history. Editor's Note: The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery is now featuring “The Art of Beauty: A Virtual Museum Tour” on its Web site. 3. Reprint requests: Antonio Fuente del Campo, MD, CAP. They want to have bigger eyes simply because they feel they look better.”8, As aesthetic surgeons, we often see patients from a variety of ethnic and cultural backgrounds. This certainly appears to be true in Asian countries, where double eyelid surgery today is both common and well accepted. They have inspired an overhaul of what the standards of beauty are. This report Before World War I, voluptuous faces and bodies were popular. One of the earliest to seek insight into the elusive qualities of beauty was the Greek philosopher Pythagoras (c. 570–495 bc ). The Beauty Trap: How the pressure to conform to society’s and media’s standards of beauty leave women experiencing body dissatisfaction Samantha Yee Yee Foo A thesis submitted to Auckland University of Technology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Communication Studies (MCS) 2010 Given the worldwide pervasiveness of Hollywood and the public's idolatry of media celebrities (until relatively recently, the vast majority of them Western and white), this is not an implausible argument. The history of the Western cultures reveals that many concepts of beauty have been celebrated at different places and times. Some such theories examine facial preferences as the result of human adaptations useful in the selection of a mate with qualities important for survival, such as health. By the Renaissance, concepts of feminine beauty included not only physiognomy but also emotional and spiritual components, such as delicacy, fragility, mystery, and maternal tenderness. Evolutionary beauty is the transformation of traditional ideas of attractiveness into something that resonates more powerfully within a culture's current society. It sometimes happens that patients will bring a photograph of their most admired movie star, hoping that some attractive facial attribute (usually a nose) somehow can be “transposed” onto their own face. In the case of Asian double eyelid surgery, the technique may be reversible to some extent but not easily so. Or, as the famous Chinese actress Fan Bing Bing, known for her large eyes, said in an interview, “Chinese people don't want to have larger eyes to look more Western. Today, however, we increasingly hear a more dispassionate discussion about the “redefinition” of beauty within various cultural contexts. According to Dove, real beauty means various shapes and sizes—flaws and all—and is the key to rebranding, rebuilding women's self-esteem, and redefining beauty standards (Millard, 2009). women (Swain, 2012). What is concerning to me is that many of the Asian patients requesting this surgery are teenage girls10 who are responding to media images of popular Asian models and actresses or who may have been told by well-meaning relatives and friends that their natural eyelids are unattractive. Our own aesthetic judgment cannot help but be enhanced by an appreciation of how the human mind processes the various elements of facial appearance. Meagan is currently studying the influence of media on the aesthetics of skin lightening and other beauty practices in South Africa so as to inform policy and the regulation of the beauty industry. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. society has built up impossible standards of beauty, which has led to feelings of inadequacy among women. By the term evolutionary beauty, I am not referring to theories of biologically based standards of beauty. Lipscomb University. The dark side of social media: How unrealistic beauty standards are causing identity issues Ntianu Obiora. The standard of feminine beauty exalted by Anglo-Saxon poets of the Middle Ages was a waxy, pale complexion so arduously sought that some women actually bled themselves regularly to achieve it. Interlomas #26, 52786, D. F., Mexico. With his son's permission, the father entered the room and sat down. Very biased article and just plain wrong. For the aesthetic surgeon, this is not only a question of philosophy, history, or culture, but part of everyday professional experience. “Last week, the psychiatrist threw him out of the office. Since classical times, attempts have been made to define beauty. The standard of beauty has changed throughout the years and is different in different cultures. Buggio L Vercellini P Somigliana Eet al. Beauty involves an equilibrium between the whole object and its parts, as well as the various parts in relation to each other. “That's why we're here.” Seeing that the surgeon was clearly taken aback, the father gave a nervous laugh. Often, it seems to be not so much a rejection of tradition as an expansion of what is considered desirable and appropriate, within the context of a particular culture or ethnic/racial group. Captcha. The imagery used by the beauty industry has negative effects on female consumers by providing unrealistic standards and lowering self-esteem. My point is not, of course, that surgical enhancement should be looked upon as a fashion accessory. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. This exploratory qualitative study includes a literature review in related disciplines and the results from ten focus group interviews. Like evolution, there is no “end point.” There is only progression. (2019). At the same time, studies such as the one conducted by Hwang and Spiegel5 are important, because they help to elucidate factors that may lead to more successful aesthetic outcomes for our patients. Visit “The Art of Beauty” at www.surgery.org. I am reminded of a true story, told to me by a well-known plastic surgeon in New York, about a young man who came into the office requesting surgery to make him look like Elvis Presley. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. We all have had patients who want some type of surgery that clearly cannot, or should not, be done. In 2008, the YWCA USA developed a report, Beauty at Any Cost, which discussed the consequences of the beauty obsession on women and girls in America. 12, … “Oh, he's been seeing a psychiatrist for over a year now,” the father replied. One finding, perhaps not surprising, is that youthful-looking female faces are most attractive to men; a cross-cultural study from the Department of Psychology at the University of Louisville concluded that “large eyes” were the most effective of the neonate cues.4 In their study, “The Effect of ‘Single’ vs ‘Double’ Eyelids on the Perceived Attractiveness of Chinese Women,” appearing in this issue of Aesthetic Surgery Journal, the authors evaluate whether double-eyelid blepharoplasty enhances the attractiveness of Chinese women as perceived by both Chinese and non-Chinese observers.5 While this is a small study, it strongly suggests that, in Chinese women, eyes with a medium-height upper eyelid crease (compared with absent, low, or high crease) enhance attractiveness, and this perception holds true across cultural groups. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. A patient requesting such surgery may be an acceptable candidate and may benefit, psychologically or otherwise, from this type of cosmetic enhancement. . Nevertheless, our experience and instincts tell us that a kind of beauty exists that defies history. Angelina Jolie is the most beautiful woman in the world. We understand today that true beauty has more to do with individual uniqueness than may have been realized in the past. We can pay for a lot of beauty products and plastic surgery to enhance, support, beautify our looks and keep us feeling attractive in our culture, but there are limitations. Many of our patients, especially in the United States, are influenced by standards of beauty explicitly defined, or at least perpetuated, by Hollywood. Femsplain is a community for everyone, powered by personal stories from anyone female-identified. Search for other works by this author on: You are so beautiful: behind women's attractiveness towards the biology of reproduction: a narrative review, Attractiveness of facial averageness and symmetry in non-Western cultures: in search of biologically based standards of beauty, Consistency and variability in the cross-cultural perception of female physical attractiveness, The effect of “single” vs “double” eyelids on the perceived attractiveness of Chinese women, The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty. Although there may be certain points of agreement about what constitutes attractiveness, I do not believe in the existence of universally enduring standards of beauty, such as those defined by mathematical formulas. Have you heard the phrase, “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder?” Well, in today’s society, it has changed to, “Beauty is … 09/30/2020 Tell your friends. In his book, Beauty: An Analysis and Classification, Alexander Walker accepted standards of beauty that were congruent with those of classical antiquity, but he also identified the need for a degree of asymmetry. These effects create a strong need to purchase beauty products to fit the ideals of modern society. Search for other works by this author on: © 2002 American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Mastery of Basic Rhinology: An Important Tool for the Modern Rhinoplasty Specialist, Analysis of the Molecular Signature of the Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma in an Asian Patient, Compact Fat Grafting: A Novel Method to Improve Graft Retention Through Modulation of Adipocyte Size, Ratings of Emotional Expressions in Static and Dynamic Facial Recordings Before and After Upper Face Botulinum Injections – An Observational Prospective Study, Commentary on: Risk Factors for Explantation of Breast Implants: A Cross-Sectional Study, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Resident Physician in Cardio-Thoracic and Vascular Surgery. It has been given minor edits before re-posting. Antonio Fuente del Campo, MD, is International Editor of Aesthetic Surgery Journal. 2. Moreover, the history of beauty in Western culture is only one part of a much larger story. The plastic surgeon has the opportunity to generate transcendental beauty, but how is it to be defined? Clearly, neither the classical standard of ideal beauty nor any other single standard has always been in vogue. For them the ideal face was divided into three equal vertical sections and was two thirds as wide as it was high. Beauty standards have changed along the years for both men and women. The world has always had beauty standards- some of them unrealistic. Because of the contradictory results of the investigations carried out from a strict. I find America’s beauty standards absolutely horrifying. standards of beauty. Said he can't take it anymore. Consequently, it is important that we educate ourselves about changing concepts of beauty around the world. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication: Vol. He believed that beauty was intertwined with static mathematical principles of symmetry and proportion.1 Modern studies of perceived attractiveness have supported the idea that facial symmetry is, indeed, a universally appealing characteristic in women. Transforming “racial characteristics”: is it an appropriate role for aesthetic surgery? © 2014 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Mastery of Basic Rhinology: An Important Tool for the Modern Rhinoplasty Specialist, Analysis of the Molecular Signature of the Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma in an Asian Patient, Compact Fat Grafting: A Novel Method to Improve Graft Retention Through Modulation of Adipocyte Size, Ratings of Emotional Expressions in Static and Dynamic Facial Recordings Before and After Upper Face Botulinum Injections – An Observational Prospective Study, Commentary on: Risk Factors for Explantation of Breast Implants: A Cross-Sectional Study, http://www.vanityfair.com/online/daily/2009/04/angelina-jolie-is-the-most-beautiful-woman-in-the-world, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Resident Physician in Cardio-Thoracic and Vascular Surgery. How can they be pulled together? This can result in a particular ideal being widely embraced in a relatively short timeframe—the speeding up of the evolutionary beauty process. He believed that beauty was intertwined with static mathematical principles of symmetry and proportion. Antonio Fuente del Campo, MD, Beauty: Who Sets the Standards?, Aesthetic Surgery Journal, Volume 22, Issue 3, May 2002, Pages 267–268, https://doi.org/10.1067/maj.2002.124917. I explored how the Black women I interviewed responded when confronted with these mainstream beauty standards and how these standards influence their social and academic lives on campus. He documents U.S. trends in feminine beauty as they are impacted by art, magazines, fashion, and other external sources. Although there are many factors to consider, perhaps the most important point is that, independent of the current concept of beauty, the ultimate goal of aesthetic surgery is to harmonize the body with the spirit, allowing the patient to perceive his or her own image to be in harmony with the surrounding world. Alan Mazur (1986) suggests a closer connection between fashion standards and beauty standards. The beauty standard is criticized for replicating structures of inequality (Kwan and Trautner 2009). The author declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and publication of this article. Cunningham MR Roberts AR Barbee APet al. Beauty evolution. For them the ideal face was divided into three equal vertical sections and was two thirds as wide as it was high. While ample and curvaceous buttocks have long been a standard of beauty in Brazil and a number of other countries, it has been surmised that the popularity of singer/actress Jennifer Lopez in the United States is at least partially responsible for the reported surge in buttock augmentations in this country. It is my personal observation, as an individual who has traveled widely and enjoys intimate knowledge of many cultures around the world, that ideals of beauty are highly variable; further, such ideals are constantly changing. Sometimes these ideals are internalized without one realizing that they are. A majority of the work directly assessing classism within beauty standards falls outside of the United States. Relieved, he asked whether it would be all right if the father joined them in their discussion. It also seeks to educate the public about how aesthetic surgery contributes to our modern-day ability to look and feel our very best. All these cultures have their own concepts of beauty, each with its own history and evolution. This is perhaps not analogous to the Asian double eyelid; however, in both situations, care should be taken not to rush to judgment with regard to “ideal” proportions. Nevertheless, it behooves us, as aesthetic surgeons and physicians, to remind patients that, while fashion and beauty trends can and will change, most surgical modifications are permanent. Impossible beauty standards seem like a subconscious cultural reaction against women's growing power. Queen Elizabeth I and the noblewomen of her court dictated fashion by dying their hair, plucking their eyebrows, and applying heavy cosmetics to their cheeks. Fortunately, the days of the “cookie-cutter nose job”—when everybody came out of the operating room with essentially the same small, turned-up nose—are behind us. Is a department of the Western cultures reveals that many concepts of beauty, but is. An acceptable candidate and may benefit, psychologically or otherwise, from this of! Not easily so originally appeared on Femsplain.com ” the father entered the room and sat down lost teeth inflamed. F., Mexico effects create a strong need to purchase beauty products to fit the ideals of have. To define standards of beauty does n't mean you are n't beautiful. the largest of! Beauty involves an equilibrium between the whole object and its parts, as as! Ideal physical beauty ( Brand, 2000 ) to be true in Asian countries, double... 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